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Hanukkah or Chanukah the “Festival of Lights” Begins Tonight

The Hanukkah celebration revolves around the kindling of a nine-branched menorah, known in Hebrew as the hanukiah. On each of the holiday’s eight nights, another candle is added to the menorah after sundown; the ninth candle, called the shamash (“helper”), is used to light the others. Jews typically recite blessings during this ritual and display the menorah prominently in a window as a reminder to others of the miracle that inspired the holiday.

Report by Paula Antolini
December 6, 2015 6:00PM EDT

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Hanukkah or Chanukah the “Festival of Lights” Begins Tonight

The eight-day Jewish celebration known as Hanukkah or Chanukah commemorates the rededication during the second century B.C. of the Second Temple in Jerusalem, where according to legend Jews had risen up against their Greek-Syrian oppressors in the Maccabean Revolt. Hanukkah, which means “dedication” in Hebrew, begins on the 25th of Kislev on the Hebrew calendar and usually falls in November or December. Often called the Festival of Lights, the holiday is celebrated with the lighting of the menorah, traditional foods, games and gifts.

History of Hanukkah

The events that inspired the Hanukkah holiday took place during a particularly turbulent phase of Jewish history. Around 200 B.C., Judea—also known as the Land of Israel—came under the control of Antiochus III, the Seleucid king of Syria, who allowed the Jews who lived there to continue practicing their religion. His son, Antiochus IV Epiphanes, proved less benevolent: Ancient sources recount that he outlawed the Jewish religion and ordered the Jews to worship Greek gods. In 168 B.C., his soldiers descended upon Jerusalem, massacring thousands of people and desecrating the city’s holy Second Temple by erecting an altar to Zeus and sacrificing pigs within its sacred walls.

Did You Know?

The story of Hanukkah does not appear in the Torah because the events that inspired the holiday occurred after it was written. It is, however, mentioned in the New Testament, in which Jesus attends a “Feast of Dedication.”

Led by the Jewish priest Mattathias and his five sons, a large-scale rebellion broke out against Antiochus and the Seleucid monarchy. When Matthathias died in 166 B.C., his son Judah, known as Judah Maccabee (“the Hammer”), took the helm; within two years the Jews had successfully driven the Syrians out of Jerusalem, relying largely on guerilla warfare tactics. Judah called on his followers to cleanse the Second Temple, rebuild its altar and light its menorah—the gold candelabrum whose seven branches represented knowledge and creation and were meant to be kept burning every night.

The Hanukkah “Miracle”

According to the Talmud, one of Judaism’s most central texts, Judah Maccabee and the other Jews who took part in the rededication of the Second Temple witnessed what they believed to be a miracle. Even though there was only enough untainted olive oil to keep the menorah’s candles burning for a single day, the flames continued flickering for eight nights, leaving them time to find a fresh supply. This wondrous event inspired the Jewish sages to proclaim a yearly eight-day festival. (The first Book of the Maccabees tells another version of the story, describing an eight-day celebration that followed the rededication but making no reference to the miracle of the oil.)

Other Interpretations of the Hanukkah Story

Some modern historians offer a radically different interpretation of the Hanukkah tale. In their view, Jerusalem under Antiochus IV had erupted into civil war between two camps of Jews: those who had assimilated into the dominant culture that surrounded them, adopting Greek and Syrian customs; and those who were determined to impose Jewish laws and traditions, even if by force. The traditionalists won out in the end, with the Hasmonean dynasty—led by Judah Maccabee’s brother and his descendants—wresting control of the Land of Israel from the Seleucids and maintaining an independent Jewish kingdom for more than a century.

Jewish scholars have also suggested that the first Hanukkah may have been a belated celebration of Sukkot, which the Jews had not had the chance to observe during the Maccabean Revolt. One of the Jewish religion’s most important holidays, Sukkot consists of seven days of feasting, prayer and festivities.

Hanukkah Traditions

The Hanukkah celebration revolves around the kindling of a nine-branched menorah, known in Hebrew as the hanukiah. On each of the holiday’s eight nights, another candle is added to the menorah after sundown; the ninth candle, called the shamash (“helper”), is used to light the others. Jews typically recite blessings during this ritual and display the menorah prominently in a window as a reminder to others of the miracle that inspired the holiday.

In another allusion to the Hanukkah miracle, traditional Hanukkah foods are fried in oil. Potato pancakes (known as latkes) and jam-filled donuts (sufganiyot) are particularly popular in many Jewish households. Other Hanukkah customs include playing with four-sided spinning tops called dreidels and exchanging gifts. In recent decades, particularly in North America, Hanukkah has exploded into a major commercial phenomenon, largely because it falls near or overlaps with Christmas. From a religious perspective, however, it remains a relatively minor holiday that places no restrictions on working, attending school or other activities.

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Chanukah (Hanukkah) starts on the Hebrew calendar date of 25 Kislev, and lasts for eight days. Here are the coinciding secular dates for the upcoming years:

2015:   December 6-14

2016:   December 24-January 1

2017:   December 12-20

The first candle of the menorah is lit at nightfall of the first date listed above (for each year).

60 thoughts on “Hanukkah or Chanukah the “Festival of Lights” Begins Tonight”

  1. This has been a somewhat strange morning.I returned from a week away on vacation to find my boss was “no longer with the company”. I spent the next couple of hours trying to find out what the deal was (grand-boss was at baby-doctor appt. – she’s about to asplode). The two of them had been having “compatibility issues” for quite some time now.The upshot is that I’m still here and will end up with additional responsibilities.** whew **

  2. that ‘innocent’ Americans had nothing to fear about this program. Who is going to define ‘innocent’?Several years ago Rumsfeld and the administration was suing Greenpeace based on some law from, I think, the early 1800s, that had been passed because of pirate ships on the coast stopping and stealing from other ships. The action by the government was largely seen as trying to backrupt Greenpeace, whom Rumsfield called a terrorist group.So, if the Bush administration decides someone is not an ‘innocent’ American, how is this phone database going to be used?

  3. MORTAL !!!Ayer me quería cortar el huevo, xq justo cuando empezaba la nota al Diego estaba entrando al subte….!!Ahora la puedo escuchar completa!!!PERFECTO… !!GOOOOOOOOOOLAAAAAZOOOOOO CON LA MANO, DE MEDIA CANCHA, EN LA FINAL Y A INGLATERRA….!!!SALUDOS

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  6. What an interesting question, and my answer is yes! I also miss blue and all the pretty florals, etc. Whatever happened to those? I think I read somewhere that somebody(they never tell us who)did a study about the dye for the colors getting in the ground water. I still miss them anyway.

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